Conducted by:Thapar University

Start Date of Application:Feb 13, 2023 Last Date of application:Mar 22, 2023 Exam Date: Mar 26, 2023 Result Date: Apr 27, 2023

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Thapar University Exam - GENERAL MATHEMATICS

**Algebra**:

Quadratic equation, equations reducible to quadratic form, relation between roots and coefficients. Arithmetic progression, Geometric progression, series of natural numbers, partial fractions, Binomial Theorem and its applications.

**Trigonometry**:

Trigonometric ratios and their relations, Ratios of some standard angles, solution of trigonometric equations, sum and difference formulae, product formulas. Multiple and sub-multiple angles, solution of triangles.

**Co-ordinate Geometry**:

Cartesian Co-ordinates, Equations of straight lines in various forms, Intersection of two straight lines, angles between two lines, Distance formulae, Equation of a circle in various forms, Tangent and normal to a circle.

**Differential Calculus**: Concept of a function, limit, standard limits, Continuity, Differentiation, their geometrical and physical meanings, Differentiation from first principles, Differentiation of sum, product, quotient of functions, function of a function, Differentiation of implicit functions , trigonometric functions and logarithmic differentiation.

**Integral Calculus**: Definite and Indefinite integrals, method of integration by substitution, by parts and partial fractions, Integration of rational and irrational functions.

**Thapar University Exam - PHYSICS**** **

**Heat**:

Heat as a form of energy, Mechanical equivalent of heat (Joule’s experiment), Specific heat of a gas, Measurement of temperature, Platinum resistance and thermoelectric thermometers, Temperature scales, kinetic interpretation of temperature. Thermal expansion. Modes of heat transfer, Searle’s method and Lee’s method for thermal conductivity, Black body radiations, Stefan’s law. Wien’s law.

**Acoustics**:

Wave motion, velocity of sound, Newton’s formula and Laplace’s correction, Beats, Doppler effect, Intensity of sound waves, Reverberation, Acoustics of buildings, Production and detection of ultrasonic waves.

**Optics**:

Refraction through a compound plate, total internal reflection, Optical fiber, image formation by spherical mirrors/lenses, Lens makers formula, Chromatic aberration and its removal, Optical instruments- simple and compound microscopes, Astronomical telescope, Magnifying power & resolving power, Huygerns principle & its applications, Young’s double slit experiment, Diffraction through a single slit, Polarisation of light,

**Electricity and Magnetism**:

Electric field and electric potential, Electric dipole and its field, Gauss’s law and applications, Energy stored in a capacitor, Dielectrics, Current Electricity, Kirchoffs laws and applications, Slide wire bridge, Potentiometer, Ammeter, Voltmeter, Thermal and chemical effects of current.

**Electromagnetism**:

Magnetic effects of current, Biot-Savart law and applications, Lorentz force, Moving coil galvanometers, Laws of electromagnetic induction, Mutual and self inductance, AC generator, Alternating currents, LR, CR, LCR, circuits.

**Modern Physics**:

Determination of e/m and e of electron, Bohr’s model and hydrogen spectra, Spectral series, Photoelectric effect, Matter waves.

**Thapar University Exam - CHEMISTRY**

**Structure and bonding**:

Fundamental particles, Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, Quantum numbers, Pauli’s exculsion principle, Aufbau rule, Hund’s rule, ionic and Covalent bond, orbital concept of covalency, Hybridizsation (sp, sp2 and sp3).

**Chemical Equilibria, Electrochemistry and Redox Chemistry**:

Balancing Chemical equations, Oxidation and Reduction reactions, electronic Concept, balancing redox reactions by oxidation number method. Faraday’s laws of Electrolysis and its application in Electroplating, Electrometallurgy and Electrorefining, Degree of ionisation, Equilibria in aqueous solutions, solubility product and common ion effect, Modern concepts of acid & base, their strength and ionization constant, pH value, acid base titrations, choice of indicators and Buffer solutions.

**Colloids and Water**:

Particle size and colloidal state, Preparation of colloids by dispersion and condensation, Stability and properties of colloids, Tyndell effect, Brownian movement, coagulation. Hard and soft water, degree of hardness and its determination, Disadvantage of hard water in industrial use and boilers.

**Organic Chemistry**:

Nomenclature of organic compounds, IUPAC system. Saturated and unsaturated Hydrocarbons, Ethane, Ethylene and Acetylene. Substitution and addition reactions (preliminary ideas). Isomerisation (Chain position, functional, cis-trans and optical), Aldehydes and Ketones, preparation, properties and qualitative tests. Polymerisation, addition and condensation polymerisation, degree of polymerisation, Linear and cross linked polymers.

**Thapar University Exam - ENGLISH **:

Idioms and phrases and their usage, Correction of sentences, sentence structure , sequence of tenses, Parts of speech, Words often confused in the form of pair of words, Common synonyms and antonyms, Active and Passive voice, Direct and indirect speech , Punctuation.

**PAPER – II Thapar University Exam - PROFESSIONAL **:

**Thapar University Exam of ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING, ELECTRONICS (INSTRUMENTATION & CONTROL) ENGINEERING **:

**Basic Circuit Elements**: Circuit laws and their applications in solving problems. Characteristics and applications of different types of diodes, Concepts of bipolar transistors and common base common emitter, common collector configuration and parameters.

**Amplifiers**: Different types of amplifiers, working principles and experssion of voltage gain, current gain, input impedance, output impedance, etc.

**Network Analysis**: Working principles of Multivibrators, time base, operational amplifier, timer and regulated power supply. Network theorems, all types of network, one port, two port, symmetrical, unsymmetrical balanced, T. Ladder, lattice, bridge, their characteristic impedance. Attenuators, filters. concept of different types of filters, Impedance matching of filters. Transmission lines, concept and applications, characteristics impedance, different methods of loading, concepts of reflection and standing waves. Automatic Telephony.

**Communication Theory and Systems**: Communication systems types, types of modulation, amplitude modulation, frequency modulation, AM modulators. Demodulation of AM waves, FM waves, transmitters and radio receivers. Antenna and wave propagation. Types and areas of applications. Conducting materials, low and high resistivity materials, super conductivity. Development of modern insulating materials. Magnetic materials, permeability, Hysteresis loop, soft and hard magnetic materials. Components, Capacitor, polyster, Metallised, polyster gap ceramic, paper and electrolytic types. Resistors of different types. Transformers, Inductors and RF Coils, Printed circuit boards.

**Measuring Instruments**: Multimeters, types, application, different types of mV meters and mA meters-extension of range. CRO, operation, working applications, Audio power meter, impedance bridges. Q.meter, Regulated power supply, block diagram, significance, Digital instruments, block diagram, comparison with analog instruments. Microprocessors and its applications: Microprocessor, structure of 8085. Instruction set and addressing mode. Simple programming in assembly language. Input/output operations, concept of interrupts structure and programming of 8155/8156. Microprocessor applications. Transducers: Electro-accoustic transducer, microphones, loudspeakers, sound recording in different types, hi-fi and PA system. VCR and Video recording. T.V. equipment and Video display unit. Power Electronics: Thyristor, principle, characteristics and applications in industry. TV Engineering: Introduction to Monochrome TV receiver circuits and basics of colour TV systems.

**Thapar University Exam – Computer Engineering Analog & Digital Electronics**:

PN junction diode, V-I characteristics, Diode as half wave, full wave and bridge rectifier, Zener diodes, CB, CE, CC configuration of the transistor, Binary and hexadecimal number system, Binary addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, Logic Gates, DE Morgan’s Theorems, K-Map, TTL and MOS families, BCD, excess-3 and Gray code, Arithmetic circuits, Decoders, Multiplexers and De- Multiplexers, flip flops, Counters, Types of RAM/ROM, A/D and D/A conversion.

**Thapar University Exam - Programming Language C **:

Constants, variables and data types, Operators and Expressions, Control Structures, Functions, Arrays, Pointers, Strings, Structure and Unions, File Handling.

**Thapar University Exam - System Analysis and Design **:

Systems Development Life Cycle, Feasibility Study, cost and benefit analysis, Requirement Specifications and Analysis.

**Thapar University Exam - Introduction to Databases **:

Architecture and structure of Database Management System, data independence, ER Diagrams, Introduction to network, hierarchical and relational model, Domain, Attributes, Tuples and Relations, Entity and referential integrity, keys, Normalization, First, Second and Third normal forms, Boyce/Codd normal form,

**Thapar University Exam Structured Query Language**:

DDL and DML statements.

**Thapar University Exam - Data Structure **:

Basics, Arrays, Operations on arrays with Algorithms (searching, traversing, inserting, deleting), Traversing a linked list, Searching linked list, Insertion and deletion into linked list, Application of linked lists, Doubly linked lists, Stacks, Queues, Binary Trees, Search algorithm (Linear and Binary), Sorting algorithms (Bubble Sort, Insertion Sort, Quick Sort, Selection Sort, Merge Sort, Heap Sort) and their comparisons.